Attrition V Wastage

 What if every seed grew perfectly?

What if every seed grew perfectly?

For a flower farmer, the ideal would be that everything that you planted would grow, and you’d sell everything that it produced.

I’m sure that there’s some snorting with laughter happening out there as you read that sentence, because it’s one of those “if only” situations!

BUT, how can you realise what might be happening to make your equation fail, and what can you do about it?.

First you need to know what Attrition and Wastage are.

Attrition is everything that stops a plant getting to the point where it might make a harvestable crop.

It could be Pest and Disease, Growing conditions or Lack of experience.

 Perfect seedlings being given the right amount of light, water, and growing medium.

Perfect seedlings being given the right amount of light, water, and growing medium.

Wastage is what happens when a flower gets to the point where it is harvestable, but it doesn’t make it off the farm

it could be Poor Quality, Lack of orders, or you may have grown too much, of the wrong thing.

 A whole row of Ageratum produces a lot of stems each week. If they don’t all get sold, they are wastage.

A whole row of Ageratum produces a lot of stems each week. If they don’t all get sold, they are wastage.

Both Attrition and Wastage are bad. They are energy drainers/ time wasters, and they make your work hard without giving you an end result.

Our next The Business of growing flowers module starts on the 3rd December.

We’re going to be looking at that holy grail of

“Growing more flowers for less work”

You can sign up to the module from Monday, so email Claire for more details or to register your interest

Do I need to grow Chrysanthemums?

At the other end of the season from Tulips, Carol Siddorn of Carol’s Garden has written about these end of the season beauties.

 Photo by Emma Davies

Photo by Emma Davies

There has been much talk about Chrysanths, and with a great Flowers From The Farm group buy coming up, I started to think about which and when to grow them.

I grow quite a few, and have done for many years, but the quantity, colours, & style has changed over the years. I started growing them for myself, then for Christmas, then for autumn bouquets and now for weddings and wholesale event florists.

So, should you grow them?

Chrysanths are daylight dependant flowers. This means that they will flower according to the number of hours darkness or daylight they receive. Literally, like clockwork. The response to darkness varies with variety, so they are grouped according to their flowering period. Early varieties will generally flower from early Sept to mid Oct in the UK, intermediates from mid oct to end November, and Late varieties from mid Nov to end December. These timings are what I have found here, in NW UK, but may differ for you, even within the UK. You can’t alter this flowering period by heat or feed, only by manipulating the hours of light (or more accurately, the hours of dark) they receive.  This is how All Year Round chrysanthemums can be grown anywhere in the world - by maintaining appropriate growing conditions and then shading or lighting the crop to flower at exactly the time they are needed. 

late cream chrysanth.jpg

For the later flowerers, you need to consider the weather in the UK, and whether you are able to protect the flowers from rain, wind and frost. The plants themselves are quite hardy and may survive frosts (but not wet), but the flowers will be damaged by frost. Any flowers outdoors in wind and rain will get wet and are then almost impossible to keep upright. Even indoors, they need good staking. We had a hard frost mid October this year and the flowers already blooming in the tunnel were spoiled, but the tight buds lower down were ok, and are now flowering in the milder conditions we’re having in November.

 Allouise Pink

Allouise Pink

So, if you can only grow outdoors, you can only reliably grow the early varieties. And these will, most likely, overlap the flowering period of dahlias.  So maybe go for different shapes and colours than the dahlias you grow, to ring the changes into autumn. There are some beautiful, soft shapes and muted colours, that dahlias just don't do. I especially love the Allouise series, although the heads on these can get quite big.

If you have unheated, covered space eg polytunnel or cold glass house, you can try the intermediates too - so long as you have a market for them in mid oct to end Nov. This opens up a much wider choice of colours and shapes…..limiting your selection becomes the problem here!

 Heather James

Heather James

You can only realistically grow the late varieties if you can offer frost free protection to mid/end December. I’ve never been able to do this in NW UK in an unheated greenhouse. They might flower, but the quality is poor, and disease is a major risk.

So for me, I will grow a small range of outdoor early varieties, and some intermediates in the polytunnel for late Oct - Nov flowers, after the dahlias have finished. I won’t be trying the late varieties again, sadly. Unless I get a heated glasshouse……

Do you need Tulips?

By Paula Baxter Mill Pond Flower Farm

Do I need tulips? Hmm, let me think about that one…

spring tulips.jpg

Last Spring, (or arctic freeze as it was in reality) our tulip blooming was mixed in its success. We have half the crop in the polytunnels and the other bulbs outside in the field. The early bulbs were through in good time, came to a halt when the temperatures dropped well below freezing for a couple of weeks and then flowered as expected, although they were a month late. The mid-season varieties started to emerge in the middle of the extreme weather, developed flower buds, waited and waited, then bloomed poorly with the flowers spotted and damaged. At first, I was concerned it was tulip fire, but on consulting other growers and tulip experts, the conclusion appeared to be that the weather and swings in temperature had caused the damage. However, the flowers were poor quality, unsaleable and ended up burned just in case. So, on to the late season bulbs. By the time they bloomed the weather had dramatically improved and they shot through, flowering with gusto, although over a shorter period of time. We sold all the tulips that were good quality but it was a stressful time. We had our first tulip on 30 March and the last ones were cut on 15 May and sent to RHS Chelsea for the Flowers from the Farm stand. 

At Mill Pond Flower Farm our main customers are wedding and event florists. They need particular colours and shapes for specific dates. Tulips are a lovely flower to have, but it’s very hard to predict when they’ll flower so whether they’ll be available for their orders. They’re also very readily available through wholesalers, although they’re not quite the same as locally grown. We allow the blooms to grow to their full size and they’re fully coloured when delivered. We do sell some local flowers but very limited numbers, although we always have brides ordering buckets of mixed blooms to arrange themselves in the spring. 

When it came to bulb ordering time, for the first time ever I really hesitated over spending hundreds of pounds on tulips. I consulted the oracle that is the Flowers from the Farm forum and asked what other growers thought about growing tulips. The response was thoughtful but mixed, between growers who don’t grow them (too expensive, not a good return) to those who couldn’t imagine spring without them. I decided not to go for tulips this year and I bought a whole load of hellebores instead.

Fast forward to last week. 

While planning for next season, we’ve decided to offer limited numbers of flower subscriptions for local flower lovers, a pre-ordered bucket of loose blooms and foliage or an arranged bouquet delivered once a week or fortnight. These will be offered for April and May so we’ll need additional blooms and good variety for buckets and bouquets. Tulips would be good.

And the horror that is Brexit is approaching. It will happen in the Spring and even optimistic predictions are for delays at ports, with imports held up. This might not be so bad for dry goods and electronic items, but for perishable flowers it’s a disaster, and more so for the florist who’s ordered flowers for a wedding in a few days’ time and needs beautiful blooms for the bridal bouquet. The options may be very limited for spring weddings and it would be good to have tulips on our list.

Out came the catalogues and the order is now in, hundreds of bulbs are on their way. We just have to plant them – oh, I may not have mentioned that bulb planting is my least favourite job - roll on the spring and lots and lots of tulips!

Turning up the light for your indoor plants

Turning up the light for your indoor plants

 Sweet peas in May

Sweet peas in May

Our polytunnels are in constant use, as soon as a bed is finished or productivity drops, it’s cleared and replanted with the next crop. We’re currently planting out hardy annuals, ranunculus and anemones to grow on through the winter. 

As the days shorten and natural light levels fade, it’s really important to get as much light as possible into the tunnels. The health of a plant is determined by its ability to photosynthesise – to turn sunlight into sugars which is used for all the metabolic processes. Light energy is essential to make this happen. Sunlight is made from a spectrum of colours. When you see a rainbow, what you actually see are raindrops splitting sunlight into these different colours. Photosynthesis uses predominantly red and blue parts of this spectrum, and not green light

Algae on the polytunnel.jpg

When we have a polytunnel which is covered with algae we create a green filter which allows more of the green part of the spectrum to go through and reduces the red and blue light available to plants and therefore dramatically reduces the ability of the plants to efficiently photosynthesise.    

This week Ray led the charge in cleaning the tunnels. He made a flossing tool (nothing to do with dancing!) from a long length of rope covered in foam pipe insulation and felt, secured with duct tape. We mixed up a cleaning solution to remove the algae that has built up over the summer. We’ve bought a proprietary algae removal solution in the past but when we looked at the ingredients it was basically vinegar, so now make our own using 

Half cup vinegar

Gallon water

Egg cup of washing up liquid

This was brushed onto the cleaner and then we gently pulled the rope on at each side to rub off the algae. A quick rinse with the hose and it was like someone had turned on a light in the polytunnel. Our days are short in Scotland during the winter, only 6 hours of daylight in December and January and cloud cover reduces its quality. The more light we can get in for our plants, the healthier they will be and the more flowers we’ll have in the Spring. Definitely time well spent!

 Ray’s polytunnel flosser (patent pending|)

Ray’s polytunnel flosser (patent pending|)

Hellebore Heaven, with just a bit of care now.

Hellebores – do you have some? When did you last have a good look at them? Go and hunt them out and give them a bit of care and attention and they’ll reward you with spectacular flowers in the coldest, hardest time of year. Paula and Claire are great fans

garden hellebore-2.jpg

From Paula at Mill pond flowers up in Scotland

The beginning of this season was exceptionally difficult for UK flower growers. The Beast from the East in March brought ice, snow and howling gales at a time when we hoped to be starting to sell flowers. It killed off shrubs, damaged emerging tulips and called to a halt any thoughts of Spring. Once it was receding and the season began in earnest, 6 weeks late in Scotland, I assessed the damage and hunted for positives. The hellebores were the one plant that withstood the worst of the weather, shrugged it off and got on with flowering, producing bunches of breath-taking, delicate-looking blooms to lift the spirits and get the season properly underway.

From Claire in Surrey

2018 was the year I took earlier wedding bookings than ever before… Unfortunately it was also the year that the season started later than ever before. While I played chicken with the tulips, hoping against hope i’d have them in time, the Hellebores just got on with giving of their best, and flowering their socks off giving beautiful blooms even in the face of cold and rain.

 Mid March wedding bouquets

Mid March wedding bouquets

Here’s how Paula recommends you get the best from them

A bit of love in the autumn will prepare the plants well by feeding the developing buds and giving them a boost to take them through the winter. Hellebores love deep, rich humus soil and a dappled shady spot. By the end of the summer they’re usually a bit weedy and shabby looking, so give them a good tidy up and weed or hoe around them. Keep an eye out for self sown seedlings and pot them up if you’re lucky enough to have some new ones emerging. Top up the feed in their soil with some well rotted manure or compost and apply a mulch. I’ve used various mulches and they don’t seem to mind what it is – leafmould, sheep fleece, cardboard – so long as it provides a moisture retentive cover for the soil. Our sheep shearer now has a job assisting a tree surgeon and has begun to drop off the occasional load of wood chip, so this year they’re tucked up under a nice deep layer of fresh chippings and look very smart.

Autumn is the right time to divide hellebores too, so if they’re a good size and you want to increase plant stocks, take a sharp spade and slice up a big plant, making sure that each piece has a growing point. They might not flower so well in the following Spring but should grow on well after that. More hellebores can never be a bad thing, and no matter what the weather throws at you this winter, you’ll know they’re there, just waiting to burst into bloom!

Hellebore flowers early March.jpg

Nimble business marketing

Nimble Small business marketing

If you deal with big companies to sell your flowers, there are all kinds of rules, departments and procedures you need to deal with.


It's made me realise how nimble small businesses are when it comes to marketing. Actually we’re much more likely to realise that we need to do more. 

If I havn't got the right photo on my website, I resize another and load it in - taking less than 5 minutes. I don't need to ask the Website department or fill in a form that confirms the photo is mine.

If I need to know people's opinion about something, I make up a survey, ask the questions send it out to my group, and find out within 24 hours - I don't need permission to set up a survey.

If I want to arrange a day with other people I check the diary, and say yes - I don't have to ask about budgetary constraints, or state that things have to be within certain timescales to be approved

(all real example of things that i've done for me, but couldn't get done by the 3 different "big businesses" I was working with)

Small businesses are nimble, and smart when it comes to Marketing

But you have to know what kind of Marketing will work for YOUR business, and how to make the work and any money that you put into marketing pay out in additional sales.

Over the 14 years i’ve been self employed and marketing my own business i’ve tried lots and lots of different methods of marketing, some free, some cheap, and some definitely not! Often the free methods of marketing are the best and quickest way to get you in front of lots of people, making your business better known. The Low cost, no cost marketing masterclass is all about the best ways to focus your marketing for your customers to get you real fast results.

It will be running several times this winter season, but for now, if you’d like to get more ideas and hints and tips for NO COST MARKETING, i’ll be running a free course and Teleseminar this Wednesday 10th October. The Teleseminar will be at 8pm, but if you sign up, you can hear the recording even if you’re not able to attend.

Sign up here for free

Fast Growing Shrubs for Bouquets

Here in the 2nd of our “insights” into the flower farms of the “Business of growing flowers” team. Paula Baxter is from Mill pond flowers in the Scottish Borders. The trees on her property grow fast in the wet climate, but she realised quickly that other foliage is also popular. Here’s her thoughts on Fast growing shrubs for bouquets.

 Winter Eucalyptus foliage

Winter Eucalyptus foliage

Running a successful flower farm is not just about spectacular blooms. Good quality foliage is essential to floristry, whether you’re creating your own designs or selling wholesale to florists. Shrubs can be some of the most profitable plants in your field or plot, so buy good quality and get them planted early in your growing adventure and you’ll be so pleased you did!

Here’s a selection of quick growing foliage shrubs that should grow happily anywhere in the UK:

Physocarpus or Ninebark is a very fast growing plant that comes in a few colours. It produces long straight stems with nicely shaped leaves and has great vase life. Try Diabolo, Lady in Red, Dart’s Gold

Eucalyptus is a classic floristry foliage plant and it shoots away. It has been said that eucalyptus has two stages – too small to cut and too tall to cut- so it’s essential to manage it properly for foliage production. However, it grows easily from seed and plants are readily available.

Ligustrum is a fabulous foliage plant. Commonly seen around the UK as privet hedge, if allowed to grow it produces long stems that last well and can be used out of water. It establishes well and grows exceptionally quickly.

Rosemary is well known as a herb and is fabulous in bouquets, bringing scent as well as colour and texture. If it’s cut regularly it produces stems across the whole of the season.

Escallonia is green, glossy and superfast to get established. It grows easily from cuttings and is really tough, shrugging off all sorts of weather.

 Here Ligustrum (Privet) is used as the foliage.

Here Ligustrum (Privet) is used as the foliage.

Flowers for your polytunnel for October

When we started our Advanced flower grower workshops, one of the things that Carol Siddorn, Paula Baxter and I (Claire Brown) liked the most, was peering into each other’s growing spaces….. What have you got compared to me? How do you get things to flower longer? later? better? We’ve all made each other better growers over the last 3 years by sharing information, encouraging, and maybe even pushing each other. So here’s the start of a blog series to give you some insights into some of the topics we’ve shared. Last Autumn we were in Cheshire in Carol’s Garden, and there was still a huge amount flowering, so here’s Carol’s thoughts on what to put in your polytunnel for October.

 One of Carol’s poly tunnels with Chrysanthemums waiting to be cut

One of Carol’s poly tunnels with Chrysanthemums waiting to be cut

October may be my favourite month. It has rained, the end of the flower season is in sight, and I can happily ignore weeds and dead heads for a while longer. The risk of early frosts and stormy weather means that the polytunnels come into their own now, so I can take bookings til at least mid Oct without too much stress. We officially close sales at the end of Oct, even if we still have flowers, because we need to get tunnels cleared and replanted for spring during November. The quality and productivity has usually declined by then, and tunnel space is valuable. 
So, what’s in the tunnels now? Here’s a little walk-through of ours:
1. Permanent perennial plantings eg foliage from scented geranium, senecio, Passion flower, Jasmine. Pinks & marjoram having a second flush. 
2. Hardy annuals which have been there since last autumn, flowered all summer and still flowering! Scabious, calendula, phlox, Daucus (though this last is small now!)
3. Half hardy perennials which will be lifted once the hard frosts hit, or mid-end Nov - Dahlias (I’m trying the dinner plate dahlias in the tunnel for the first time, but think I won’t do this again, they were hit by spider mite early on and not been as productive as outdoor ones), chrysanths, tweedia, chocolate cosmos. 
4. Spring sown half hardy annuals that just do better in the tunnel, most have been flowering for ages and still doing ok: lisianthus, celosia, antirrhinums, didiscus, basils, carnations, cobea, cardiospermum, - and of course lots of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and aubergines. 
5. Late sown annuals which have replaced the summer crops, sown June, planted July/aug (bit later this year because it was so hot) and flowering strongly now - Amaranthus, zinnia, nasturtium, gomphrena, asters, phlox. 
So, what’s coming next for spring?....a few biennials already in (wallflowers, sweet Williams and trying some foxgloves inside this year too), hardy annuals mainly sown and growing ready to be planted from end Oct, Ranunculus and anemones started, tulips ready and waiting for the last crop to be cleared end Nov-Dec (which will be the chrysanths). And then there’s all the obliging self sown things... I do love spring in the polytunnel.... 

What makes a good customer?

Over the last few years, i’ve really learned who i like working with…

I’ve learned the type of customer who i’ll get on with and who will love what i do.

 Photo by Leslie of me enjoying bouquet making with lots of lovely customers in my barn at my open day

Photo by Leslie of me enjoying bouquet making with lots of lovely customers in my barn at my open day

These are the customers who i’ll want to work hard for, give that little bit extra for, seek the total perfection for. These are the customers that it is a Joy to work with, that i’ll be thinking of when a new flower comes out that I know they’ll like. the customers who will make me smile when i see i’ve got a message or email from, not worry or think “what do they want?”

This week’s customers have all been in that category, and i’ve realised that it’s because they have all

Known what they wanted

Trusted me to give them what they want

Arrived when they say they will, or told me unambiguously when i need to be with them

Paid on time

Usually these kind of customers are also the ones that also recommend you to others.

So wether it’s been for funeral flowers, for flower arrangers buckets, for event flowers, talks and workshops or for my florists, thank you to all my customers this week, you’ve all been excellent customers, and it’s made my life easy and rewarding.

Hardy Annuals - The top 5 varieties to give you the most stems to sell next year

The end of August and first half of September are a blur of seed sowing for those of us in the Uk, who want to be selling flowers in the first half of next year.

There are a whole list of hardy annuals that can be sown now, and with the right conditions will make it through the winter, and will be ahead of anything that gets sown in Early spring. 

But which ones win in terms of stem numbers to sell in that all important late spring window when customers are interested in our flowers, but the season is only just started.


 Autumn sown Orlaya seedlings

Autumn sown Orlaya seedlings

 Orlaya beds in full bloom mid June

Orlaya beds in full bloom mid June

The first year i grew Orlaya I sowed a whole packet of seeds, but only managed to grow 3 plants. These were planted in my polytunnel and cosseted. From 3 plants, i sold 57 stems to florists, and I have pictures of them in bouquets that i made in late June, so i guess at least 20-25 stems a plant were produced. Now I Sow one batch in September which get planted outside and covered in Environmesh over winter, and i interplant my polytunnel ranunculus with Orlaya plants sown in October, grown in 7cm modules over winter, and planted into the beds between the ranunculus plants in March. I’ve tried growing them as Spring sown plants, but never manage to get as tall stems as those that have overwintered, so i’ll stick to Ammi for later in the year.


Cornflowers germinate fast, and get good root systems quickly. For that reason they are ideal for Autumn sowing, and need pricking out within 5 days of germination, - which usually means 8 to 10 days after sowing them

Cornflower seedlings.jpg

I get the best and strongest plants when i space them well, - just 3 plants across each of my 90 cm beds

This is how they look by February

 Covered in ugly netting to keep off the deer and rabbits who love overwintering cornflowers

Covered in ugly netting to keep off the deer and rabbits who love overwintering cornflowers

Claire picking cornflowers.jpg

By late May, they are strong, and tall plants with up to 20 flower stems per week per plant, Usually I give up picking late June, - not because they aren’t still producing hundreds of blooms each week, but because i can’t keep up with the dead heading.

Daucus Carota

Daucus Carota which is probably correctly named as a biennial rather than a hardy annual is a great umbellifer that follows on from where Orlaya finished flowering in Mid June. This Carrot family flower is another that needs winter protection from rabbits, but if you can prevent them nibbling then this is another plant that you are likely to give up picking because you can’t keep up with it, rather than because it runs out of steam.

 Hundreds of white with a hint of blush filler flowers per square metre

Hundreds of white with a hint of blush filler flowers per square metre

Ammi Major

 Strong Ammi seedlings mid October about to be planted out

Strong Ammi seedlings mid October about to be planted out

Ammi Major is another Umbellifer that really benefits from Autumn sowing. The difference in height and so stem length from Autumn to spring sown plants is terrific. With the strong bold Autumn sown plants producing a lot more stems per plant, and plants putting down lots of growth over the winter

 Strong Ammi plant in the January sunshine

Strong Ammi plant in the January sunshine

 End of May

End of May

Sweet Peas

The last one on my list which is an absolute must for piles and piles of Spring flowers are Autumn sown Sweet peas. Now Admittedly these are best grown in a greenhouse or polytunnel for early blooms, but late September or October sown sweet peas can be flowering outside in sheltered areas by June. They can be kept in pots until late February or early March, and then are hardy enough to be planted even if we get late frost. The last couple of years i’ve been selling a good proportion of my blooms as sweet pea trails, which keeps the blooming even longer

 Tray of overwintered sweet peas about to be planted out

Tray of overwintered sweet peas about to be planted out

 Lots of flowers over a long period make sweet peas a valuable crop despite the work needed in feeding tie ing in and picking them

Lots of flowers over a long period make sweet peas a valuable crop despite the work needed in feeding tie ing in and picking them